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Journal of Integrative Neuroscience  2018, Vol. 17 Issue (2): 89-96    DOI: 10.31083/JIN-170045
Research article | Next articles
Transcranial direct current stimulation based on qEEG combining positive psychotherapy for major depression
Zahra Khayyer1, *(), Leonard Ngaosuvan2, Sverker Sikström3, Amir Hossein Ghaderi4
1 Educational Sciences & Psychology Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Health and Work Science, University of G$\ddot{a}$vle, G$\ddot{a}$vle, Sweden
3 Department of Psychology, Cognitive Division, Lund University, Sweden
4 University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
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Frontal cortex activity is reduced in the left hemisphere during depression. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that can increase frontal cortex activity. Therapy based on transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and positive psychology therapy was applied for improving patients' quality of life. The present study compared three conditions of subjects with clinical depression; (a) transcranial Direct Current Stimulation therapy, (b) positive psychotherapy, and (c) combined treatment. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Adult State Hope Scale and Optimism/Pessimism Scale was used at baseline, 2-week, 4-week, and 3-month follow-up. Combined condition participants showed greater reduction in depressed mood, improved hope and optimism after 4-week as well as during 3-month follow-up than the other conditions. Results are discussed in terms of additive or synergistic relation between transcranial direct current stimulation and positive psychology treatment.

Key words:  Frontal cortex activity      case study      major depression      transcranial direct current stimulation      quantitative electroencephalogram      positive psychotherapy     
Submitted:  21 April 2017      Accepted:  10 August 2017      Published:  15 May 2018     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Zahra Khayyer     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Zahra Khayyer, Leonard Ngaosuvan, Sverker Sikström, Amir Hossein Ghaderi. Transcranial direct current stimulation based on qEEG combining positive psychotherapy for major depression. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 2018, 17(2): 89-96.

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Table 1  Positive psychotherapy program
Fig. 1.  Alpha absolute power before and after treatments.

Fig. 2.  Alpha absolute power (8-13 Hz) of the patients, before and after the end of twelve sessions of intervention just for three participants, one from each group.

Table 2  Clinical evaluation
Table 3  Descriptive statistics
Fig. 3.  Mean Scores of Depression over time.

Fig. 4.  Mean Scores of Optimism over time.

Fig. 5.  Mean Scores of Hope over time.

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