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Journal of Integrative Neuroscience  2018, Vol. 17 Issue (4): 343-348    DOI: 10.31083/j.jin.2018.04.0414
Research article Previous articles | Next articles
Anxiety and depression in Chiari malformation
Esther Lázaro1, *(), Maitane Garca1, Imanol Amayra1, Juan-Francisco López-Paz1, Oscar Martnez1, Manuel Pérez1, Sarah Berrocoso1, Mohammad Al Rashaida1, Paula Fernández1, Alicia Rodrguez1, Amaia Jometón1, Begoña Ruz2
1 Avda. Universidades 24, 48007 Bilbao University of Deusto, Spain
2 Spanish Center of Reference for Rare Diseases Calle Bernardino Obregón, 24, 09001 Burgos, Spain
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There are few studies that explore the involvement of the cerebellum in the affective area. This study aims to evaluate the affective component and, specifically, the emotional states of depression and anxiety associated with the Chiari malformation, controlling perceived pain. This study included a Chiari group and two control groups, one healthy, the other suffering from Myasthenia gravis, which exhibits a physical component without cerebellar impairment. Each participant completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Scores were significantly higher for the anxiety variable in the Chiari group, either when compared to the control group or the group affected by Myasthenia gravis-controlling the level of headache. The results obtained support previous studies in which the important contribution of the cerebellum to emotional regulation was emphasized.

Key words:  cerebellum      Chiari malformation      depression      anxiety      pain      observational descriptive study.     
Submitted:  15 May 2017      Accepted:  14 December 2017      Published:  15 November 2018     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Esther Lázaro     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Esther Lázaro, Maitane Garca, Imanol Amayra, Juan-Francisco López-Paz, Oscar Martnez, Manuel Pérez, Sarah Berrocoso, Mohammad Al Rashaida, Paula Fernández, Alicia Rodrguez, Amaia Jometón, Begoña Ruz. Anxiety and depression in Chiari malformation. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 2018, 17(4): 343-348.

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Table 1  The scores on depression and anxiety between the two evaluated diseases
n Mean Standard deviation
HAD Anxiety Control 20 4.60 4.03
Chiari 19 12.11 5.31
Myasthenia 31 7.90 4.25
HAD Depression Control 20 1.70 1.94
Chiari 19 8.05 4.32
Myasthenia 31 5.81 4.04
HAD Total Control 20 6.250 5.72
Chiari 19 20.158 8.93
Myasthenia 31 13.935 7.26
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