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Journal of Integrative Neuroscience  2018, Vol. 17 Issue (4): 365-369    DOI: 10.31083/j.jin.2018.04.0406
Research article Previous articles | Next articles
Abnormal P50 sensory gating in schizophrenia: A permutation fuzzy entropy analysis
Wei Zhang1, 2, *(), Shuze Liu3, Jie Xiang2, Jin Li2, Aichun Qiao4
1 Information Center, Shanxi Health Vocational College, Taiyuan 030012, P. R. China
2 College of Computer Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, P. R. China
3 Department of Computer Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180-3590, USA
4 Department of General Practice, Shanxi Academy of Medical Sciences, Shanxi Dayi Hospital, Taiyuan 030032, P. R. China
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A permutation fuzzy entropy algorithm is proposed that uses sorting and symbolic methods to improve anti-noise performance of electroencephalogram signals known to be highly sensitive to noise disturbances during collection. It was employed to analyse abnormal event-related potentials of schizophrenics focused on P50 potentials of sensory gating, which is the most common paradigm currently used for analysing schizophrenia. The approach for analysing P50 sensory gating in schizophrenics is presented from twenty-seven schizophrenia patients and twenty healthy controls. The values calculated for the patients under the conditioning and testing stimuli were used to calculate the entropy complexity. Results demonstrate that the approach can be effectively used to analyse sensory gating deficits in patients with schizophrenia and that the algorithm can be satisfactorily be used for analysing electroencephalogram signals.

Key words:  Permutation fuzzy entropy      P50 sensory gating      electroencephalogography      schizophrenia      event related potential     
Submitted:  15 November 2017      Accepted:  20 December 2017      Published:  15 November 2018     
*Corresponding Author(s):  Wei Zhang     E-mail:

Cite this article: 

Wei Zhang, Shuze Liu, Jie Xiang, Jin Li, Aichun Qiao. Abnormal P50 sensory gating in schizophrenia: A permutation fuzzy entropy analysis. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 2018, 17(4): 365-369.

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Fig. 1.  Steps of preprocessing ERP data using Analyzer software. Raw data can be pretreated in the work flow.

Fig. 2.  Position of the 11 selected electrodes. Channels were located in different brain regions.

Fig. 3.  (a) Mean PFEN plot for control subjects under stimuli S1 and S2. The black and grey plots give the entropy curve under S1 and S2, respectively. (b) PFEN mean plots of test subjects in response to S1 and S2 stimulation. The black and grey plots give the entropy under S1 and S2, respectively.

Table 1  Statistical Test Results of Entropy Analysis of Schizophrenia Data
Channel (electrode position) F3 Fz F4 T7 C3 Cz
Normal PFEN 0.0002 0.0001 0.0022 0.0051 0.0012 0.0001
p value PE 0.7938 0.0072 0.2043 0.2959 0.2180 0.3507
FuzzyEn 0.0859 0.1560 0.0304 0.0057 0.0859 0.8519
PFEN *** *** ** ** ** ***
Significance PE **
FuzzyEn **
Schizophrenia PFEN 0.1864 0.0754 0.0163 0.5322 0.0837 0.3130
p value PE 0.4279 0.9234 0.7731 0.8101 0.1075 0.7007
FuzzyEn 0.1075 0.5642 0.0186 0.8288 0.5971 0.8664
Significance PE
Table 2  Statistical Test Results of Entropy Analysis for Schizophrenia Data (continued Table)
Channel (electrode position) C4 P3 Pz P4 T8
Normal PFEN 0.0003 0.0001 0.0001 0.0010 0.0051
p value PE 0.1084 0.0333 0.0017 0.4115 0.7369
FuzzyEn 0.0930 1.0000 0.9405 0.3135 0.4330
PFEN *** *** *** ** **
Significance PE **
Schizophrenia PFEN 0.0411 0.4279 0.4711 0.4140 0.0679
p value PE 0.0306 0.5165 0.6480 0.7916 0.7548
FuzzyEn 0.9044 0.2488 0.0643 0.1563 0.9808
Significance PE
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